There’s a very interesting feature in lawcareers.net, which is all about grammar and the correct use of language when writing applications. At this time of year I’m busy helping students with applications and I often feel like I’m banging a well worn drum as I point out mistakes in spelling and grammar that would send the application straight to the bin. I can’t emphasise enough how important well-written applications are for the legal market. Law is a career where language and attention to detail is everything and the first place you ‘advertise’ your written communication skills is on the application form.
Have a look at this excellent article, which highlights the mistakes you just can’t afford to make:
From lawcareers.net on 17/07/12
According to recruiters, too many applications are let down by sloppy writing skills. Read on for a quick crash course in the precise parlance of formal application writing.
If you’re not as confident with the rules of the writing game as you could be, read on.
Utilising cross-functional expertise With advice from application gurus Anna Williams of CityLawLIVE and Amy Elderfield of Apply4Law, here are some troubleshooting guidelines to help you eliminate those costly mistakes from your applications and develop a clear, simple style of formal writing fit for a legal professional.
Let’s start with the basics. Everyone can make typos when writing in full flow, so proper proofing is essential. Don’t rely on your word processor to do it for you; print out what you’ve written and go through it, word by word, with a pen. Don’t do this straight away; leave enough time to rest and look at your writing again with fresh eyes. It’s also crucial to get someone else (with good literacy skills) to go through your writing – another person will almost certainly spot mistakes that you have missed.
Best of British
Use British spellings, not American. This means an American ‘z’ usually becomes a British ‘s’, so it’s ‘organise‘, not ‘organize’, and ‘prioritise‘, not ‘prioritize’. There are other differences too, so be aware that the British spelling is ‘calibre‘ not ‘caliber’, it’s ‘centre‘, not ‘center’ and it’s ‘programme‘, not ‘program’ (unless you are referring to computer software). Your word processor is stupid and will often not pick up on these, so take care.
The formal vocabulary contains so many words that can easily trip you up, either in their spelling or by similarities to other words. Don’t get caught out; be aware of the following:
- You are ‘pursuing‘ a goal, not ‘persuing’ it.
- ‘Persevere‘ is ‘severe’ with footballer Per Mertesacker’s first name before it.
- You ‘gauge‘ the extent of your progress, not ‘gouge’ or ‘gage’ it.
- You want to work at a reputable legal ‘practice‘, but you ‘practise‘ the violin and aspire to be a ‘practising‘ lawyer.
- You’re ‘grateful‘ for the opportunity, not ‘greatful’.
- It’s good to ‘accept‘ criticism, ‘except‘ if your critic is clearly a moron.
- You’re ‘desperate‘, not ‘desparate’. Actually, never use this word in an application.
- You don’t care about your ‘company’s‘ fate now that you’re hawking yourself to other ‘companies‘.
- ‘Hone‘ your skills, don’t ‘home’ them.
At best, poor written grammar makes you seem slovenly. At worst, it makes you seem stupid – so familiarise yourself with the following rules:
- Writing numbers: Write ‘one’ through to ‘nine’ in words. Use digits for 10 upwards. Punctuate bigger numbers for clarity, such as 1,000, 50,000 and 1,500,000.
- Capitalisation: Never write a word in CAPITALS for emphasis, unless you want to quickly and easily convey the impression of a dullard. Capitals are commonly overused elsewhere, too. Generally, they start sentences and mark distinct nouns. You don’t need to use capitals for words like ‘company’, ‘client’ or ‘solicitor’. That said…
- Lower case: Using lower case when upper case is required is an easy mistake to make when typing. It’s ‘I am’, never ‘i am’.
- Repetition: Avoid repetition of words in the same paragraph and certainly in the same sentence. Not words like ‘the’ or ‘in’, but everyone has pet phrases and words that they overuse. They are easy to go back and change – and this is where getting someone else to proof your work can also be very helpful. If you ask them to be on the look out, they should spot your ticks.
- Tenses: Never change tenses mid-sentence.
- Which/that: It is common to confuse the use of ‘which’ and ‘that’. Use ‘which’ in a sentence when providing additional information that is not necessary for the sentence to make sense. Essentially, using ‘which’ does not limit the scope of the noun to which it refers. For example, “The cat, which is ginger, loves to leave mice on the doormat.” Use ‘that’ when restricting the scope of the noun, eg, “The cat that is ginger loves to leave mice on the doormat”. Here, the description of the cat as ginger is necessary for the sentence to make sense, as the speaker is singling out and identifying a specific moggy as the culprit.
- Who/they/have: Don’t refer to organisations, groups or entities with ‘who’, ‘they’ or ‘have’. “Ashurst, who have a high NQ retention rate which they are very proud of…” is wrong. Law firms and companies are not people, so instead write: “Ashurst, which has a very high NQ retention rate that its partners are very proud of…”
A good formal writing style does not require you to use long, obscure words and sentences where shorter alternatives will suffice. A formal tone is achieved by using a clear and precise vocabulary that is appropriate to your audience. Avoid colloquialisms and vague, catch-all terminology – don’t write “I got my law degree in 2010”, because the verb and noun do not fit together as well as other options. “I completed my law degree” is more precise (and it just sounds better). Here are some more suggestions (none of which involve archaic, pretentious terminology) to give you an idea of how to formalise what you are likely to write in your applications:
- Instead of “I go to” and “I went to”, write “I attend” and “I attended“.
- Instead of “field of law” or “law industry”, write “legal profession” or “legal sector“.
- Replace “good” with words like “beneficial“, “positive” and “advantageous“. If you are good at something, write that you are “proficient” or “skilled” – but it’s better to demonstrate such a claim with examples.
- Don’t write “I am looking to”; it’s better to write “I am aiming to” or “my aim is“.
- Avoid “I love”, it’s not professional. “I enjoy” or “I am interested in” is better.
- Instead of “I was voted”, write “I was elected” or “selected“.
Make sure that you don’t stray from formality into academic pomposity – the pet hate of Amy Elderfield of Apply4Law. She despairs at the “Biblical tone” of many applications which are too influenced by the phraseology of academic journals remembered from university. Formal writing should never have to involve unfamiliar, rarely-used words. Trying to pass off a style with which you are uncomfortable will be obvious to recruiters.
Substance > cliché
Your writing must avoid clichés of any kind. Don’t make any point with a tired metaphor when plain, direct English will do. No achievement is the “jewel in your crown”, you don’t “think outside the box” and your gap year did not help you to “grow as a person”.
Even more important to dodge are ‘application form clichés’ like, “I would relish the opportunity to work at (insert law firm)”. Don’t boldly state that you are a highly motivated individual – say what it is that drives you instead. Similarly, don’t claim that you are “creative”, a “team player” or a “natural leader”. Instead, use examples to convey that impression without being explicit and let the recruiter decide. Keep ‘passion’ and ‘passionate’ to a minimum – they are words that crop up too often in applications. Use them when necessary, but only with supporting examples that illustrate that what you are claiming is genuine.
Let’s consider starting and signing off your covering letters for a moment. First and foremost, you should research to whom you should address your applications on each firm’s or chambers’ website – this information is usually very clear. In the unlikely event that no information is provided, never open with “Dear sirs”. It should always be “Dear sir/madam” Sign off with “Yours sincerely” (not “Your’s sincerely – no apostrophe is required).
Anna Williams of CityLawLIVE has kindly devoted some of her time to drawing up a list of accessible words that are useful for writing applications. Vocabulary like this makes your writing articulate and precise as opposed to dull, stunted and vague. Don’t feel limited to the list, but do use it to polish clumsy phrases and help you eliminate the repetition that will almost certainly creep into your writing as you draft. Variety is important to keep your application fresh and interesting, especially as recruiters will be trawling through hundreds of them – many of which will be similar.
|Afforded (the opportunity)||Possess||Attended|
Finally, keep a decent dictionary and thesaurus to hand – never use a word without knowing its exact definition. Practise a formal style to make yourself comfortable using it, avoid pretence, vagueness and repetition and your application will not get forgotten in the pile. Write on!